Tuesday, May 19, 2020
When someone asks me what is my cultural identity, there are a lot of things that come to my mind. For example, one of the first things that come to my mind is the how people see me which is by being hispanic. In the same way, I also think about the fact that in addition to being hispanic I am also Salvadorean which sets me apart from the idea that every hispanic is mexican and they are all the same. In the first few seconds after I am asked about my cultural identity, I think about who I am and what makes me me. I think about how I was raised and how different I might be compared to everyone around me. I am a straight male who does not have any disabilities. I do not have a high socioeconomic status, but I have sufficient. Being catholic, I have no problem exercising my religion as I please and that really sets me apart from many because not everyone identifies with the same cultural identity as I do. Some people encounter many obstacles due to their cultural identity, obstacles tha t I might not face which is why I feel like my cultural identity has affected different aspects of my life such as my social development, family, education among others. As far as I am aware of, my family accepts me and loves me for who I am. I like to think that my parents would love me and accept me no matter what, but I do think sometimes that if I identified any other way that I do now, my parents would have a problem with it. For example, I think that if I were to identify as anything elseShow MoreRelatedMy Culture, Identity, And Cultural Identity852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen I think of the word Ã¢â¬Å"cultural identityÃ¢â¬ , I think of myself, and what makes up who I am as a person. My cultural identity influences everything about me, from the moment I wake up, to the minute I rest my head on my pillow at night. My culture influences the way I eat, speak, worship, and interact with people. However, I am not only affected by my own culture, but othersÃ¢â¬â¢ culture as well. I am fortunate to have an extremely rich heritage, and I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be prouder of my cultural identity. TheRead MoreUsing Five Metaphors For Identity Essay1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto find different perspectives and personal identity. The authors of the research called Ã¢â¬Å"Literacy and Identity: Examining the Metaphors in History and Contemporary ResearchÃ¢â¬ review various ways of conceptualizing identity by using five metaphors for identity documented in the identity literature: identity as (1) difference, (2) sense of self/subjectivity, (3) mind or consciousness, (4) narrative, and (5) position. This research was really helpful for my study because it gave different perspectivesRead MoreCultural Identity Essay945 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCultural Identity A cultural identity is the sense of belonging to a particular group and the influence said group has over an individual. In clinical therapy, it is important to be aware of a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural identity, as well as the cultural identity of the therapist. Both a client and the therapist can experience biases from their cultural identities so it is crucial for the therapist, in particular, to be conscious of that to not inadvertently invalidate or offend the client. It is also importantRead MorePersonal and Cultural Identity in Things Fall Apart and Ã¢â¬Å"I Lost My TalkÃ¢â¬ 1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPersonal and Cultural Identity in Things Fall Apart and Ã¢â¬Å"I Lost My TalkÃ¢â¬ Identity can be explained as the state or fact of being a specific person or thing. [definition is good, but needs to be more specific] A specific person or thing can be defined by his/her personality, interests, family, community or culture. [connect your definition to the novel and poemÃ¢â¬âthatÃ¢â¬â¢s why previous sentence was inserted] In both Chinua AchebeÃ¢â¬â¢s Things Fall Apart and in Rita JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I Lost My TalkÃ¢â¬ , OkonkwoRead MoreMy Cultural Identity : Hawaii Essay1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhen I think about the culture I come from, I immediately think about my Japanese and Filipino lineage. I also think about Hawaii, and how growing up there has shaped me today. This are only parts of the equation to my cultural identity. No matter what nationality or country you grow up in, each person is exposed to different ideals that mix in with their background culture. I would like to look at my cultural identity by looking at some traditions in Hawaii , the organizations IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been a part ofRead MoreMy Cultural Identity1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI may look a typical Starbucks loving white girl to people but I am more than that, Culturally and ethnically. My cultural identity is defined by the community which I reside in and the people that belong to it. I am seen differently in the different places I have been to. I am seen very differently here in Hawaii where I live compared to in Japan or on the continental US. Cultural identity to me is a vast term used by every individual to define their own culture. I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t really thought about howRead MoreCultural Identity And Personal Identity1016 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Personal Identity We all have a distinct culture, going on hiking trips at the Hollywood Hills on sunday , sushi night on fridays, or a common one like movie night with your whole family. Which every unique traditions you have it always connect with your cultural identity. Ã¢â¬ËCultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group. It is part of a persons self-conception and self-perception and is related to nationality, ethnicity, religion, social class, generation, localityRead MorePart 1. Answer The Following Questions About Yourself.1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesquestions about yourself. Note that you may need to think outside your usual framework to answer some of these questions (for instance, you may not have thought about the advantages and/or disadvantages for you of being a member of your particular ethnic/cultural group). Ã¢â¬ ¢ What is your ethnic/cultural/linguistic identity? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What has it meant to belong to your ethnic/cultural group? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What do you like about your ethnic/cultural identity? Ã¢â¬ ¢ What do you dislike about your ethnic/cultural identityRead MoreIdentity And Personal Identity1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIdentity is what makes a person who they are. It is a complex relationship between a personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and their appearance. Personality can be broken down by how that person acts or feels. This aspect of identity can be impacted by mental health and disabilities. The appearance of a person can also be broken down by how a person looks and how they dress. Physical appearance can be impacted by genetics and outside influences; accidents, diseases, sickness, etc. With the combination of the twoRead MoreWhat Makes Me Who I Am?851 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesI never thought too much about who I am or at least what makes me who I am. I do have very strong convictions concerning who I want to be or who I feel as though I should be, but never have I theorized about how my makeup plays a part in it. As I viewed the pie graph in figure 2.1 of Ferdman (1995), I attempted to put my life in percentages basing them on what I felt I thought was most important. I immediately began to recognize who I am is a mixture of many things and from each I have built my
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Yeats, B. William. The Collected Poems of WB Yeats. New York: Macmillan, 1996. 318 The importance of this book is that it contains some of the works of poetry which were carried out by William Yeats. Arguably, the most salient feature in the book is the attempt at portraying the shift that characterized Yeats in his work, so that his works are arranged almost chronologically to underscore this standpoint. Works that depict him as a bard of the Celtic Twilight, reviving Rosicrucian symbols and legends are the most frontal. These are followed up by works which show the shift away from plush romanticism. The same are exhibited by the heavy presence of incantatory rhythms such as Ã¢â¬Å"I will arise and goÃ¢â¬ ¦ and go to InnisfreeÃ¢â¬ . The same is seenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦New York: WW Norton and Company, 1975. This poem was published in 1927 and comes out as a form of meditation. The poem is rich in its scope as it covers sundry topics ranging from children, to human behav ior, life in the 20th century, the philosophy on life and life after death, among others. This poem is an eight-lined stanza which is heavily laden with rhymes and the use of prosaic language. The poem has been written within the context of a visitor who has walked into a classroom under the guidance of a kind elderly nun. The importance of this poem to this reading is that in it, the poet addresses the dynamism that has shaped and continues to shape the civil society, progress and modernity, as opposed to the status quo ante which predated the Civil War or the Anglo Irish War. The importance of this poem to this reading is also seen in the fact that it betrays the political ideals that Yeats had: the poem implicates the speaker as being a senator. It is in after 1924 that Yeats served as a senator. This makes the poem sound like a poem which was penned down after the civil war, given that it is written from the standpoint of a more peaceful and politically stable Ireland. Thus, t he poem is also instrumental as it lets the reader in into YeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ political orientation and leanings. Thus, the many qualities Yeats had and the many fields he operated in, in terms of career are well confirmed by this poem. TheShow MoreRelatedEssay on W.B. Yeats and the Importance of Imagination2200 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesW.B. Yeats and the Importance of Imagination The poetry of the Irish writer WB Yeats celebrates how the human imagination gives meaning to lifes struggles. Yeatss vision of human creative power evolves with his writing, broadening from seeing the imagination as the embodiment of human desires to understanding the power of the imagination to inspire others and immortalize the creative spirit. Yeatss work, by embracing this power, embraces the human condition itself, giving dignity to hardshipsRead MoreA Picatrix Miscellany52019 Words Ã |Ã 209 PagesMcKenna On the Moon and the Lunar Mansions IV. Extracts on the Moon V. The Mansions of the Moon: Ã¢â¬Å"On the Creation, Proportion and Composition of the Heavens for the Fashioning of ImagesÃ¢â¬ VI. The Picatrix: Lunar Mansions in Western Astrology VII. W. B. Yeats and Ã¢â¬Å"A Vision:Ã¢â¬ The Arab Mansions of the Moon On Ritual and Talismans Picatrix Astrological Magic Aphorisms Extracts on Planetary Ritual Clothing Twenty Two Benefic Astrological Talismans Astrology, Magic al Talismans and the Mansions of the Moon Ritual
Questions: 1.Assume that the Policy Makers in a Closed Economy want to Increase output without Changing Interest Rates. What kind of Policy Mix would you Recommend and how would your Policy Mix affect the Components of GDP? 2.In the Short-run, the Effect of an Expansionary Fiscal Policy on the output level is very large when money Demand is highly sensitive to the Changes in the Interest rate. Do you agree or disagree with this Statement? 3.Suppose an Economy characterized by Flexible Prices and Rigid Nominal Wage in the short-run. Using Aggregate DemandAggregate Supply framework, Discuss the Short-Run and long-run Effects of an Increase in Money Supply on the price level, real GDP, Nominal wage rate and real Wage rate. Answers: 1.The main target of any policy maker is to increase the level of GDP within an economy to an unattained level. The policies taken up by the policy makers depend on the type of economy under which he is subjected to enact. In this case, we have to consider the economy to be a closed one. In other words, the nation is not involved into trade with the global economy but only within itself. Now the policy maker has only two tools to operate with in order to bring about any changes in the economy. They are fiscal policy and monetary policy. Monetary policy: This policy consists of changing the money supply available within an economy at any particular time. It is taken up by the monetary authority of any nation that is the Central bank of any country. Monetary policy can either be positive in nature that is expansionary policy or negative in nature that is contractionary policy (Kriesler and Nevile 2016). Fiscal policy: This policy is directly in the hand of the government through which they try to control the nation. They can either change the tax rate or the general spending level to manage the economy (Rubin and Lange 2014). The given scenario is that there should be some policies taken up by the government within the closed domain so that the interest rate remains stable while leading the economy in its growth path. Henceforth, the suggestion is that the policy maker can use both expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. In the short run, taking up expansionary policies is not going to affect the interest rate but keep it at the equilibrium level (Bella, Mattana and Venturi 2014). The level of economic output is going to increase though in both short and long run. In other words, the GDP of the nation is expected to get uplifted. In the long run, these policies are going to affect the economy by increasing the price level and hampering the real wages earned by the workers within the economy. The diagram below describes the economic situation that is expected to occur if expansionary policies have been taken up within the economy. Figure 1: Expansionary policies through IS-LM Source: Created by the Author The above IS-LM diagram shows the actual effect of both the expansionary policies within the given nation. At the initial level an expansionary fiscal policy is going to shift the interest rate above r and increase the output level to Yo. Through this policy the government can increase the level of their expenditure and reduces the tax rate so that people now have more disposable income in their hand (Matsumoto and Szidarovszky 2016). Since, it has been given that the government wants to keep the interest rate unchanged, hence they also takes up expansionary monetary policy to keep a check on the rise in interest rate due to fiscal expansion. Having more money implies people are now being able to purchase more goods and services and hence the demand for those goods increases in turn increasing Y1 from Yo. At the same time the interest rate goes down again back to its initial level. Hence, it can be stated that within a closed economy a mix of both the expansionary policies is going t o bring out the desired outcome of increased output while keeping the interest rate steady. 2.I strongly disagree with the statement given in the question that in short run there is a very large impact on the level of output with adoption of expansionary fiscal policy. In order to justify the point of disagreement there is a need to explain this concept with the help of the following Investment-Savings Liquidity Money (IS-LM) diagram. Figure 2: Money Supply IS-LM curve Source: Created by the Author Fiscal policy, the only direct tool in the hand of the government to control the economic disturbance within a nation is only effective properly only in the short run (Nakamura and Steinsson 2015). The government might take up contractionary or expansionary fiscal policy depending on the way in which it wants to control the nation. The government takes up expansionary fiscal policy whenever it wishes to increase the level of aggregate demand within the economy. This can be done by the government either by lowering the tax rate or by increasing the planned expenditure on government or by applying both (Adam and Billi 2014). Mathematically, aggregate demand is written as: AD = C + I + G + (X M). Here, if government increases the planned expenditure, that is the component G, keeping everything else as it is the AD increases. According to the question, there is going to be a large increase in the level of output when money supply remains sensitive (Hansen 2013). In the diagram above it has been seen that whenever there has been an outward shift in the IS curve, there is going to be increase in the level of Y and also r. The interest rate r is going to increase as shown by the red coloured arrow in the above given diagram. On other hand an increase in interest rate is inevitably followed by an expansion of money supply within the economy leading to inflation and thereby contraction of the economy via reduced production. Hence, in order to have a huge increase in the volume of output level the money supply has to be insensitive to the changes in the interest rate and remain fixed at the place where it presently is lying. Only when money supply is insensitive to the fluctuation in interest rate, there is going to be a large expansion in the volume of output followed by a sharp rise in the level of interest r ate (Arrow and Kruz 2013). Otherwise, crowding out would take place had money supply being sensitive to the interest rate as mentioned in the question. Hereby, the disagreement of the proposed statement from the question has been justified. 3.The exchange rate can be interpreted in the way in which the currency of home economy is interpreted in terms of the currency of the other economy (Afonso and Balhote 2014). There are two types of exchange rate depending on the rigidity of the economy as set up by the government. They are fixed exchange rate and floating or flexible exchange rate. In answering this question, it has been considered that the economy is operating under flexible exchange rate. In other words the government of the nation allows the currency to fluctuate and adjust itself in accordance with the currency of other nation (Goodwin et al. 2013). Now the effect of this price system in short run and long run has been discussed below. Short Run: Figure 3: Short Run AD-AS Source: As Created by the Author Usually in the short run, it is difficult to increase the money supply within an economy but still if money supply can be increased in the short run the consequent effect of the same within the economy has been discussed. With the increase in the money supply peoples demand for goods and services is going to increase. The consequent result of this is going to be a shift in the AD curve in the rightward direction (Mankiw 2014). Similarly in the short run the aggregate supply curve is upward sloping and it is not possible to increase the supply within the economy as supply works with the feature of time-lag. It has been shown in the above figure from AD to AD1. The effect in other sector of the economy has been discussed below: Effect on Price Level: Price level is going to increase from P* to P1 with the shift of the AD curve. Effect on Real GDP: The figure above clearly highlights that with the increase in demand and shift of AD curve, there has been an increase in the Real GDP from Y* to Y1. Effect on Nominal Wage Rate: Nominal wage rate is going to increase as a consequence of increased demand and production. Moreover with the increase in money supply people is going to feel that they are earning more than before. Effect on Real Wage Rate: As price level also increased henceforth often it results to a counter impact on the wage rate. The nominal wage rate may seem to increase but in reality the real wage is going to stay as it was or people may even be worse-off. Long Run: In the long run the aggregate supply curve is vertical in shape. This is because all the resources are considered to be used optimally to produce the best possible result (Sikdar 2014). Therefore, the impact of increased money supply has been discussed below. Figure 4: Long Run AD-AS Curve Source: As Created by the Author Effect on Price Level: Price level is going to increase as shown in the figure from P* to P1. Effect on Real GDP: Real GDP is not going to change as LRAS is now vertical. It is going to remain stagnant at Y. The nominal wage rate might increase but the real wage rate is not guaranteed to increase as there is going to be high price level in the economy References: Adam, K. and Billi, R.M., 2014. Distortionary fiscal policy and monetary policy goals. Economics Letters,122(1), pp.1-6. Afonso, A. and Balhote, R., 2014. Interactions between Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy. Arrow, K.J. and Kruz, M., 2013.Public investment, the rate of return, and optimal fiscal policy(Vol. 1). Routledge. Bella, G., Mattana, P. and Venturi, B., 2014. Kaldorian Assumptions and Endogenous Fluctuations in the Dynamic Fixed-Price IS-LM Model. InComplexity in Economics: Cutting Edge Research(pp. 31-48). Springer International Publishing. Goodwin, N., Nelson, J., Harris, J., Torras, M. and Roach, B., 2013.Macroeconomics in context. ME Sharpe. Hansen, A.H., 2013.Fiscal policy business cycles. Routledge. Kriesler, P. and Nevile, J.W., 2016. IS-LM and macroeconomics after Keynes. InPost-Keynesian Essays from Down Under Volume I: Essays on Keynes, Harrod and Kalecki(pp. 69-80). Palgrave Macmillan UK. Mankiw, N.G., 2014.Principles of macroeconomics. Cengage Learning. Matsumoto, A. and Szidarovszky, F., 2016. Delay Dynamics in a Classical IS?LM Model with Tax Collections.Metroeconomica,67(4), pp.667-697. Nakamura, E. and Steinsson, J., 2015. Assessing the effects of monetary and fiscal policy.NBER Reporter, (1), pp.22-25. Rubin, G., 2014. Oskar Lange or how IS-LM came to be interpreted as a Walrasian model. Sikdar, S., 2014. Mundell-Fleming with Stock Market and Endogenous Risk Premium. InTrade, Globalization and Development(pp. 185-194). Springer Indi
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
Table of Contents Role of prisons Reasons for recidivism Factors affecting recidivism Conclusion Works Cited The reason why criminals are sent to prison is to reform and discontinue their criminal life. However it does not always work that way. The Pew report indicates that cases of incarceration including recidivism continue even with incarceration (6).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Recidivism and Incarceration specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Incarceration therefore does not yield the results that are hoped for with regards to reformation. Although incarceration offers some degree of deterrence the results are not long lasting. Imprisonment is one of the ways in which society punishes offenders. Prison terms are issued depending on various factors. Role of prisons The nature of the crime committed is one of the greatest determinants. Other factors are background of the crime and offender and case specific s. The prison system reflects the legal values and system in that crime are placed in categories and depending on the crime the prisoners will be sentenced. Prison terms accompany felony crimes but other crimes may receive prison term or other punishments like fines. Much of what determines how much time an offender spends in prison depends on the state where the offender is tried. Prisons have been in existence in a long time but more recently there are new centers coming up that offer incarceration while at the same time offering other service. These centers are like boot camps, detention centers for the mentally unwell and juvenile centers. This type of incarceration has been adapted to deal with the unique needs of the prison population. They aim at positive rehabilitation of the offenders and are a balance between punishment and care. Another purpose that prisons serve is the opportunity to get justice for society. When people commit crimes they owe the society for their wrongs whether it is murder, theft or forms of corruption. Because of the crimes they need to pay in terms of time taken away from society. They therefore miss on certain privileges of being in the world. However the whole experience is supposed to teach them something so that they do not commit crimes anymore. The structure of prison is made in a way that should allow prisoners to retain their dignity. It is not meant to give inhumane mistreatments. Phillips states that prisoners are still valuable to society and determined as such should be helped to self actualize (33). Today there exist concerns about the role of prisons in the justice system and if really prisons are serving their purpose. The high costs of keeping prisons running has intensified questions about the effectiveness of prisons.Advertising Looking for essay on criminology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More If they are working as they should, shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t there be fewer criminals in prison? And are the aims of incarceration being achieved? Given the growing numbers of prisoners and cases of recidivism, these questions pose serious concerns about the future of prison systems. Crimes seem to continue with or without incarceration. Reasons for recidivism Significant numbers of prisoners find their way into prison because of drug related crimes. Once they leave prison the very circumstance they were living in before incarceration are still there. As a result many of them engage in drug use and in time they are involved in crime that lands them in prison. The cycle may keep repeating itself until the offender recovers from the addiction to drugs. One of the reasons why recidivism is though to occur is because many of law breakers are given prison term when other methods might be useful in addressing the reasons as to why the criminals engage in crime. In many instances drug and alcohol abuse have been attributed to petty crimes. As a result those who have drug abuse problems will continue to be sent to prison while their addiction problems are not being addressed. The justice system has not concentrated on the criminals but rather seems to be more concerned with getting offenders off the streets. The problem is that they keep reappearing once they leave prison. Intervention programs would be more beneficial so that the reasons behind crime can be addressed. That is why according to the Pew report; more states are opting to invest in better programs in prison than in capacity (17) Wilson after conducting a study to evaluate incarceration costs in Oregon states that there is a direct link seen in the number of crimes and incarceration. Wilson concludes that it is only when methods of reducing crime are implemented that there will be fewer prisoners and also consequently cases of recidivism will diminish (4). The study revealed that the rates of increased prison terms make little change to the crime rates, although they do dec line. As a result other means of reducing crimes should be used instead of dependence on prison terms as a crime fighter. According to Wilson, the reason why prison terms have found favor before is because they can assist to minimize crimes by containing the criminals as they undergo reformation (2). This does not reflect aspect of justice alone but rather as mere holding of the criminals to prevent them from committing further crime.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Recidivism and Incarceration specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This also offers an opportunity to prevent re-offending (4). Another reason is that prison terms serve to deter potential offenders. As a result fewer crimes are committed. This is especially true for violent and sexual crimes. Different states have different measures they use which can increase incarcerations or reduce them. Wilson uses the case of Oregon which through its measures has dr amatically increased its incarcerated population by calling, in particular crimes, for longer prison terms (4). Prisons are supposed to get offenders off the streets but it is not an end in itself. First of all it is supposed to get them into reformation so that they will not commit other crimes. It is during the period of serving time that criminals can be informed about the crimes they commit and given a time to form new socially acceptable behaviors. The new behaviors will help them to get back into society and become productive and cease the life of crime. Criminals who go to prison, especially for minor crimes, can become frustrated with the prison terms and feel victimized. This is especially likely when the prison terms do not seem to match up to the crime. First time offenders are especially prone to this effect. According to King, states should thoroughly conduct analysis of their justice system to find out if the benefits of using certain measures are real (254). In doing that, the states can be able to use measures which are proven to be beneficial and can be financially supported well by the states. Maintaining the prison systems has become increasingly expensive. They should therefore be used if they can be justified to bring the results that society wants (254). King states that to avoid the large number of prisoners the country need to decide whether it can continue to dedicate required funds into the prison system. If the funds are cut there will be elimination of amenities and services that are necessary in prisons (255). However, as eliminating the services may be difficulty the other viable solution is to reduce the number of prisoners. One of the areas in which the justice system is challenged in addressing the aims to reduce recidivism is in juvenile prisoners. This is because juvenile have the most potential to avoid crime life and reform their lives. Accordingly, there are ways in which recidivism can be measured and appropriate action t aken. Particularly for juvenile the goals are to minimize cases of recidivism, increase programs that are helpful in assisting juvenile and ensure programs and services for the youth are well supported.Advertising Looking for essay on criminology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More There have been recommendations that have been made in regards to incarceration to ensure that the future of the justice system is secure and that prisons play the role they are supposed to play. According to Gottschalk, this is especially important to the African American and Hispanic population since they have the highest population in prisons (669). One of the recommendations according to Gottschalk is that the fiscal pressures ought to be placed within the right context before they are adjustments are made (670). This is because in some states, although the number of prisoners may arise with longer prison terms enforced, the states will benefit from reduced crimes and the budgets will reduce (670). Prisons will be less crowded when they are reserved for serious crimes. Many of the prisoners commit crime under the influence of some drugs which has led for calls to deal with drug addiction within the prison population. According to Gottschalk, if crimes attributed to drug addictio n are reduced, there will be less prisoners in prison and fewer cases of recidivism (680). This approach is particularly adaptable to non-violent criminals. At the same time the society will be kept safe while the offenders undergo rehabilitation. The current programs for rehabilitation have not been adequate to deal with the problem of addiction. Phillips in their book agrees with the ides that prison should not be a place of condemnation for prisoners but a place from which they can emerge as better persons and citizens (199). From the letters of the Dhamma brothers, it is clear that prisoners have high hopes for themselves. A system that does not recognize this or use it for reformation is wasting resources (200). The budget cuts in incarceration systems has meant the services that would be most beneficial to prisoners. These include vocational training, drug abuse programs and education. Unfortunately these services present the prisoners with the best opportunity for better live s after leaving prison. It is these programs that the government should dedicate more funds to if lasting changes are to be made in the justice system. Punishment alone will not reform prisoners. Gottschalk also recommends early releases of prisoners who show good behavior. This will decongestant prisons and petty criminals can have an opportunity to leave prison early and avoid getting entrenched in crime. Supervisions can then be conducted outside prisons. This will additionally keep records on criminals and assist them with what they need to stay off crime. One assistance could be drug programs for relapse addicts or assistance with getting jobs. Gottschalk states that those who commit crime for the first time have better chances to avoid a life of crime if they do not reoffend (284). Unless the first timers engage in violent crimes their sentences could be capped. The three strikes measure has been responsible for increased prisoners. The role that the measure was meant to play has taken time to show the benefits. Because of crowded prisons states are coming up with ways in which they can reduce prison populations. For first time offenders the more they are kept away from hardcore criminals the better. This is because prison environment plays a big part in how those inside perceive themselves and their behavior. If prisoners are recruited into gangs and develop gang mentality it will increase their chances of reoffending once they get back into society. It is therefore critical that the prison environment does not aid in creation of gangs and learning of criminal activities. In order to reduce the impact of heavy penalties against crime, the new reforms could be used to sentence afresh prisoners who committed crimes under the influence of drugs. The move would reduce prisoners and leave more funds for those left behind to engage in programs aimed at rehabilitation. Consequently those who go through the programs and leave prison will have a better chance of avoiding recidivism. Additionally there could be changes to way parole violations are addressed. In instances when no crime is committed, those paroled could be spared prison term. In this way only real crimes will be used to send offenders to prison. It will avoid paroled individuals from giving up and getting more into crime when they feel that they will always be in the system. Factors affecting recidivism According to Delbert, the factors that contribute the most to crime especially for juvenile are lack of education and poverty (83). Lack of education has been associated with bad decisions and especially for those who start crime at a young age. Most of juvenile offenders lack in good education, as a result they may engage in crime without an appreciation of the impact that criminal record will have on their future. As a result, when they get a criminal record they find it harder to get jobs. Having no steady means of income often leads to more crime as they try to maintain th emselves. Failure to get education also affects the rates of recidivism in that juvenile do not understand the criminal system and may not facilitate at their own defense. Many of the juvenile do not appreciate the system and therefore do not know how to defend themselves if they are accused of crime. This leads to high levels of juvenile who are caught and brought to justice. Delbert also cites that most of the juvenile offenders are part of sub culture that supports crime and which allures to them (85). As a consequence they find it hard to give up crime. The power of pee pressure and the dictates of gangs can undermine the efforts of juvenile who are trying to leave a life of crime. Additionally as the juvenile gets involved in crime they keep progressing from petty to serious crimes which lead to longer prison terms. With longer prison terms and few opportunities to reform the juvenile soon become adult offenders who are caught up in recidivism (84). The juvenile stage is there seen as very important in that if the offenders are reformed at this time period they will be assisted to avoid a life of crime later on in their lives as adults. One of the contributing factors to recidivism according to Delbert is the lack of social support for juvenile. This coupled with other factors make it hard for the juvenile to reform. Lack of support especially becomes an issue when the juvenile comes from an uneducated family that is poor. The family members and especially the parents may already be involved in crime or provide little economic support for the children leaving them to fend for themselves. In this manner poverty becomes a cause of increased cases of recidivism. Poorer families involved in crime in one way or another are also less likely to provide juvenile with the motivation to change life. The defeatist attitude of the parents and sense of hopelessness which permeates make the juvenile settle for a life of crime without feeling that they have other choice s. Parental influence is an important factor in crime and it is this factor that perhaps best illustrates the discrepancies between numbers of white and black juveniles in prison. Children coming from white families get more education and as a result do not find their way into prisons the way children from African American and Hispanic do. One way to give juvenile a chance at a better life and to get them to avoid recidivism is to get them better education, means of social control and social support so that they can give up a life of crime which will greatly enhance their opportunity for a good future (86). Uneducated adults also reveal higher chances of recidivism than their educated counterparts. Prisons can not fully deal with the issue of crime unless drug abuse and addiction are resolved. In a study of 105 drug addicts conducted by Johnson, et al., addicts often get involved in crime to make money for their drug cravings (186). Johnson, et al. also found that because the addict s had other needs as well they spent some of the money on food and buying items that they desired (190). Addiction was therefore taken as one of the reasons why people engage in crime and especially to explain cases of recidivism. If drug addicts do not receive treatment, despite their best efforts they will still resort to crimes in order to maintain their drug addiction. Drugs have also been attributed to broken families which can lead to juvenile crime. Addicted parent s do not attend to their children in a manner sufficient to give social controls, support so that it becomes easier for the youth in families with addiction to join crime. Drug addiction present cases of absent parents which encourages juvenile to join groups which could be gang related or antisocial. Drug addiction is therefore a legitimate force in causing crime and in encouraging recidivism. Until drug addiction is treated, many addicts will keep finding their way to prisons time and again. In the long run the t reatment has more positive results as it doe not only reduce crime but helps criminals to turn their lives around and become productive members of society. Conclusion While prisons are necessary in every society there is need to assess their roles and how well they are living up to what they are intended to. In America today thee is general consensus that prisons are not producing one of their roles which is reformation. This is in turn causing other problems including recidivism. It is important to find out ways in which the prison department of corrections can effectively help those who are sent to prison to leave a life of crime. In addition there is reason to find out why there are so many crimes in society today. With that understanding crime can be deal with in a preventative way. Attention to drug addiction, poverty and lack of education can yield new ways of attacking crime while redeeming the offenders and criminals. Works Cited Delbert, Eliot. Environmental Factors Contrib ute to Juvenile Crime and Violence. In Juvenile crime: Opposing Views by A. E Sadler and Scott Barbour. Eds. San Diego: Green Haven Press, 1997. Print. Gottschalk, Marie. Dollars Sense and Penal Reforms: Social Movements and the Future of the Carceral State. Social Research. 74. 2 (2004): 669-694. Print. Johnson, B., Anderson, K. and Wish, E. Day in the Life of 105 Drug Addicts and Abusers: Crimes Committed and How the Money Was Spent. Sociology and Social Research. 72.3 (1988): 185-191. King, Ryan. Changing direction? State Sentencing Reforms 2004-2006. Federal Sentencing Reporter. 19. 4 (2007): 253-260. Phillips, Jenny. Letters from the Dhamma Brothers: Meditations Behind Bars. Onalaska, WA: Parayatti Publishing, 2008. Print. The Pew. One in 100: Behind Bars in America. 2008. Web. Wilson, Michael. Oregon Calculates the Cost of Incarceration. 2010. Web. This essay on Recidivism and Incarceration was written and submitted by user Corinne Flores to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. 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Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Police - Power and Corruption essays Twenty-four hours a day, three hundred sixty-five days a year, the police have a mandate to enforce the criminal law and preserve public peace. Understood in this mandate is an obligation to police everyday life matters that originate in the daily lives and activities of citizens within their community. Police interact in some form with the average citizen more often than any other government official. In society today the police play a key role in maintaining a civil society. This role assumes a substantial amount of power and authority over the general public. With power comes corruption and/or misuse of power. The question that is presented is, how and why do the police exceed the parameters of their power and authority? This is an issue that is predominant in urban settings, but not exclusive to these settings. This is an important issue because it affects all people. The police is a government service to all people, but all people do not feel they are being serviced. Not everyone is satisfied with the conduct of the police. Why do people feel that police are crossing boundaries that they should not be? This will be observed from four different aspects in which police are capable of exceeding the parameters of their power and authority: police and use of discretionary enforcement, Police justice," police harassment, and the unwarranted use of police authority. Police are allowed to and must use personal discretion in their determination of law enforcement. Unlike a judge or lawyer a police officer can not gather information and take time to make a prognosis to make a decision affecting the fate of a person. He must make a quick decision based on his discretion to determine the fate of a person. A quick decision is required to protect the interests of the public and to satisfy requirements of operating efficiency. It sounds like we are telling officer to not enforce the law, but to determine the law. A policeman's di...
Saturday, February 29, 2020
After Decades in Institutions, a Bumpy Journey to a New Life by Rachel L. Swarns The paper "After Decades in Institutions, a Bumpy Journey to a New Life by Rachel L. Swarns" is an exceptional example of an educational article review. In my mind, Rachel L. Swarns provides a great picture of both the positives and negatives of moving terminally ill patients from state hospitals back into society. While I understand the reason behind it, many older people have lived all their lives in specialized care homes, so they have no knowledge of the outside world. The people that should be moved out of state care could be younger people, say under the age of 30. Patients of this age are more likely to be able to integrate into society because they have more time to do so and have probably only been institutionalized for a few short years. This is not the same case with elder patients, such as Wally Burns, who is 51-years-old. Mr. Burns is at a stage in his life where he will not be able to reintegrate back into the community because he will not know how to handle it. One of the reasons for this is that life is very different from the 60s when Mr. Burns was a young boy. While I can understand why some states are implementing these measures, I feel that the process should be much slower so that time can be taken to help older patients find themselves in society. Patients like Wally Burns require a high level of care, a level of care that may not be met where Mr. Burns will end up.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Effect of Stress on the Immune System - Research Paper Example Increased stress could make the immune system weaker and could lead to death. Aging Immune System The immune system changes a lot during the aging process. The numbers of cells that are associated with the immune system reduce significantly. The remaining cells may not be able to handle all the immune related responsibilities leading to low immunity. The immune system is comprised of two systems; the Innate Immune system and the Acquired Immune system. Innate Immunity in Aging The innate or natural immune system is made by the bone marrow and the thymus. Scientists have consistently claimed that the size of the thymus reduces in size a personÃ¢â¬â¢s age. This is characterized by the loss of the thymus epithelia cells, which are important for the production of immune cells. This leads to a decrease in the number of T cells including the CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ and the B cells. There is an increase in production of the Natural Killer Cells (NK) with the comprehensive cytotoxic function. The decline in especially the CD8+ leads to the vulnerability of bacterial and viral infections. CD95 cells become exhausted as people age and the remaining virgin CD95 cells are replaced by large clonal expansions of the CD28 cells, which lead to less proliferative capacity. Inflammatory cytokines, which are produced by the persistent viral and bacterial infections increase during the aging process. They increase the cases of inflammatory pathogenesis. In fact, most of the elderly have inflammations at some parts of their body.i Acquired Immunity in Aging Acquired immunity is the responsibility of the spleen and the lymph nodes. The spleen produces the B cells which are associated with the production of the antibodies. Aging has been found to alter the expression of the system responsible for the production of these cells. One, there is a decrease in the number of cells produced. Secondly, there is impaired induction f E47 and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) which are i mportant for class switch recombination (CSR) leading to defects in production of secondary isotopes of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3, IgE antibodies. Aging has also been associated with the overproduction of the Id2 which regulates the E47 negatively.ii Another theory of acquired immunity change in aging points out that the B cells produce antibodies but they have low affinity. Usually, aging leads to change in isotypes related to production of the various antibodies. At the same time, there are few naive B cells in the elderly people meaning that there not many antibodies that can be produced. The already recruited B cells do not have good memory making it a challenge for them to detect previous pathogens detected in the past. Low affinity and low production of the antibodies cannot detect the pathogens effectively showing that the immune system is weak. The body is therefore unable to respond to infections accordingly. iii Effect of Nutrition on Immunity in Aging The elderly people, especial ly those above sixty years, do not take nutrition seriously. According to Gorczynski and Terzioglu (2008),iv most elderly people lack important nutrients. They claim that most of these people have deficiencies in zinc, iron, Vitamin E, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Ubiquinone and selenium. Zinc is important in the activation of the immune system; iron plays a role in oxidative reaction immunity, vitamins are important in the modulation of cytokines and Ubiquinone influences the